Examples of Good Abstracts

Example #1
THE EFFECTS OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SPACE REVERSAL ON VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT DYSLEXIA: PHASE III
The purpose of this study was to determine if children between the ages of nine and twelve with dyslexia are able to read and understand with more accuracy passages presented when the positive and negative space is reversed (black background with white letters). It was hypothesized that the reading accuracy and comprehension of the dyslexic students would be improved with this reversal of positive and negative space. A test was created consisting of four paragraphs (two presented normally and two reversed) and two reading comprehension questions per passage. A total of 37 dyslexic students and 34 non-dyslexic students were tested. The students were given 90 seconds to read each passage, the reading comprehension questions were given and answered orally.

It was found that the dyslexic students made less errors when reading the passages presented on the black background. The reading comprehension of the dyslexic students was slightly improved by the reversal of positive and negative space. The reversal of the positive and negative space had no effect on the non-dyslexic students reading accuracy or comprehension. A chi-square test was completed comparing the black and white background reading accuracy for the dyslexic students. This test yielded a P-value of 3.46E-20 (a highly significant value). In addition a Comparison of Two Means test was also completed comparing background color, which also yielded significant results. Finally a 99% Confidence Interval was established, from which can be said with a 99% confidence that the mean reading errors of the dyslexic students will be 1.65 less when reading reversed passages. Thus, it can be concluded that it is beneficial for dyslexic students to read passages presented when the positive and negative space is reversed.

Example #2
SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF A MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMER FOR THE ENANTIOMERIC RESOLUTION OF L- AND-D- PHENYLALANINE
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthesis network polymers that contain recognition sited for specific molecules. MIPs are designed to bind the molecule that they have been imprinted with over other structurally similar molecules. The goal of this project was to create a beta- Cyclodextrin (BCD) based MIP imprinted with the amino acid L-Phenylalanine (L-Phe).

MIPs, which are prepared based on relatively weak intermolecular attractions between the template molecule and pre-polymer components, have decreased binding abilities in polar solvents. However, to be used in many practical applications in the future, MIPs will need to be able to function in polar solvents such as water. In this project, the goal was to synthesize a MIP that could bind L-Phe in an aqueous solution by using the hydrophobic attraction provided by the B-CD cavity.

MIPs were formed by polymerizing (crosslinking) B-CD with m-xylylene disocyanate (XDI) in the presence of L-Phe (template molecule). CuCl2 was used to increase the solubility of L-Phe in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide, solvent). Control polymers were formed in the same way, but in the absence of L-Phe and CuCl2. All polymers were thoroughly washed and dried to prepare them for rebinding studies and analysis.

The polymer obtained from the synthesis described was analyzed with IR spectroscopy, and the structure of the polymer was proposed.

Due to difficulties in removing background UV-V is absorption caused by the polymer or other contaminants in rebinding study solutions, the efficacy of the polymer in binding L-Phe over D-Phe in aqueous media was not confirmed, and will be the focus of future studies.

Example #3
DEVELOPMENT BY DESIGN AND TESTING OF A MINIATURE TO HARNESS KINETIC ENERGY FROM AIRFLOW AROUND A MOVING AUTOMOBLE
This project presents a summary of a successful design, fabrication and testing of wind turbines mounted on a car roof for the purpose of extracting power from the kinetic energy (dynamic pressure) contained in the wind flow around the car. The placement of the turbine was based on aerodynamic considerations. Various design concepts were tested and evaluated. Drag tests were conducted that showed the turbine did not negatively impact vehicle performance. NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) ducts were evaluated and shown to offer additional choice for turbine design and placement. The results obtained from the tests conducted in this research demonstrate the feasibility for the efficient extraction of energy from wind flow around an automobile. Literature research consisting mainly of a review of NACA reports supported the findings of this study.

Example #4
CONTINUED FRACTIONS OF QUADRATIC LAURENT SERIES
It is both natural and interesting to replace the ring of integers and field of real numbers with the ring F[x] and the field F((1/x))for a field F, and to try to use continued fractions in F((1/x))to solve Pell’s equation in F[x].

I hypothesized that the solvability of Pell’s equation in this context is equivalent to the eventual periodicity of the associated continued fraction (a non-trivial constraint for infinite F) and that such periodicity exhibits symmetry properties analogous to the classically studied case.

I proved my hypothesis, overcoming numerous obstacles not seen in the classical case, such as non-trivial units and lack of order structure. The method applies in characteristic 2, using a generalized form of Pell’s equation. The technique of proof is a mixture of non-Archimedean methods and polynomial algebra, the central breakthrough being a close study of the properties of a concept that I call a “reduced quadratic surd”. After proving some importance technical properties of reduced surd, I show that eventual periodicity of continued fractions implies the specific periodic and symmetric structure analogous to the classical case. I then use this result to prove that Pell’s equation has solutions if and only if the associated continued fraction is periodic – a result not seen in the classical theory.

As a result, the problem of Pell’s equation in F[x] and the periodicity structure of quadratic surds in F((1/x)) is solved for arbitrary coefficient fields F, giving us interesting insight into the classical case.

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